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Understanding Perimenopause: Signs, Symptoms, and Treatments


Perimenopause, often referred to as the menopausal transition, is a significant phase in a woman's reproductive life. It marks the transition from the reproductive years to menopause, the point at which menstrual periods cease entirely. This period can bring about a variety of physical, emotional, and psychological changes due to hormonal fluctuations. Understanding perimenopause, its signs, symptoms, and available treatments is crucial for managing this stage of life effectively.


What is Perimenopause?


Perimenopause is the phase leading up to menopause, typically occurring in women between their late 30s and early 50s. This transition period can last for several years, with the average duration being around four years but can range from a few months to a decade. It ends when a woman has gone twelve consecutive months without a menstrual period, marking the onset of menopause.



Menopause Doctor
Dr Rawlinson - Menopause GP


Signs and Symptoms of Perimenopause


The signs and symptoms of perimenopause can vary widely among women and can be influenced by factors such as genetics, lifestyle, and overall health. Common symptoms include:

  1. Irregular Periods: Changes in menstrual cycle patterns are often one of the first signs of perimenopause. Periods may become longer or shorter, and the flow may become heavier or lighter.

  2. Hot Flushes and Night Sweats: Sudden feelings of intense heat, often accompanied by sweating and flushing, are common. Night sweats can disrupt sleep, leading to fatigue and irritability.

  3. Mood Changes: Hormonal fluctuations can cause mood swings, irritability, anxiety, and depression. Some women may also experience increased emotional sensitivity.

  4. Sleep Disturbances: Insomnia or difficulty staying asleep can be a problem due to night sweats, anxiety, or other factors related to hormonal changes.

  5. Vaginal and Urinary Changes: Decreased oestrogen levels can lead to vaginal dryness, discomfort during intercourse, and an increased risk of urinary tract infections.

  6. Brain fog: Women often experience changes to their memory, recall, focus, concentration. they may struggle with word-finding, remembering names, or loosing their train of thought.

  7. Decreased Libido: Many women experience a decrease in sexual desire and arousal during perimenopause.

  8. Weight Gain and Metabolism Changes: Shifts in metabolism can lead to weight gain, particularly around the abdomen.

  9. Bone Density Loss: The decline in oestrogen can contribute to decreased bone density, increasing the risk of osteoporosis.

There are many other symptoms too


Perimenopause: Treatments and Management Strategies


While perimenopause is a natural biological process, its symptoms can be managed through various treatments and lifestyle adjustments. The goal is to alleviate symptoms and improve quality of life. Here are some common approaches:

  1. Hormone Replacmeent Therapy (HRT): Hormone therapy can help balance oestrogen and progesterone levels, reducing symptoms such as hot flushes, night sweats, improving energy, mood, sleep and vaginal dryness.

  2. Lifestyle Modifications: Regular exercise, a balanced diet, adequate hydration, and stress management techniques like yoga and meditation can help manage symptoms and improve overall well-being.

  3. Non-Hormonal Medications: There are various options for non-hormonal treatment of menopausal symptoms, including Veoza,

  4. Vaginal Oestrogen: For vaginal dryness and discomfort, low-dose vaginal oestrogen products (creams, tablets, or rings) can be effective.

  5. Calcium and Vitamin D Supplements: To support bone health, calcium and vitamin D supplements can be beneficial, along with weight-bearing exercises.

  6. Herbal Remedies and Supplements: Some women find relief from symptoms using herbal supplements such as black cohosh, evening primrose oil, and soy products. However, it is essential to consult with a healthcare provider before starting any new supplement.

  7. Cognitive Behavioural Therapy (CBT): CBT can be effective in managing mood swings, anxiety, and depression associated with perimenopause.


Conclusion - Understanding Perimenopause: Signs, Symptoms, and Treatments

Perimenopause is a natural and inevitable phase in a woman’s life, marked by significant hormonal changes that can bring about a range of symptoms. By understanding these changes and exploring various treatment options, women can navigate this transition more comfortably and maintain their quality of life.


Let us develop you a personalised treatment plan which addresses your individual symptoms and health needs during perimenopause.



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