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The Impact of Female Hormones on Mental Health: Understanding Conditions, Treatments, and Signs


Female hormones, primarily oestrogen, progesterone and testosterone, play a pivotal role in women's overall health, influencing a range of bodily functions. Beyond their reproductive duties, these hormones significantly affect mental health. The intricate dance of these hormones throughout a woman’s life—during puberty, menstrual cycles, pregnancy, and menopause—can lead to various mental health conditions. Understanding these effects, recognising the signs, and knowing the available treatments are crucial for maintaining well-being.

Kate Organ, specialist in mental health in the menopause & PMDD, PMS
Kate Organ: Female Hormone Mental Health Specialist

The Role of Hormones

Oestrogen: Often referred to as the primary female sex hormone, oestrogen is crucial for the development and regulation of the female reproductive system and secondary sexual characteristics. It also has a profound impact on the brain, influencing mood, cognition, and overall mental health. Oestrogen can modulate neurotransmitters such as serotonin, which is often called the "feel-good" hormone.

Progesterone: This hormone is essential for regulating the menstrual cycle and maintaining pregnancy. It also affects mood and has a calming effect, as it can enhance the activity of GABA, a neurotransmitter known for its relaxing properties.

Testosterone: Testosterone is produced int eh female brain and is involved in our mood regulation, stress management, helps our drive and motivation, and supports positive cognitive functioning.

Hormonal Fluctuations and Mental Health Conditions

  • PMS: Characterised by a range of physical and emotional symptoms that occur in the luteal phase of the menstrual cycle. Symptoms include mood swings, irritability, anxiety, and depression.

  • PMDD: A severe form of PMS with more intense emotional symptoms, such as severe depression, irritability, and tension. It affects about 3-8% of women of reproductive age.

  1. Postnatal Depression (PND):

  • After childbirth, the sudden drop in oestrogen and progesterone levels can trigger depression. PND is characterised by severe mood swings, exhaustion, and a sense of hopelessness that can interfere with a mother's ability to care for her baby.

  1. Perimenopausal and Menopausal Depression & Anxiety:

  • The transition to menopause (perimenopause) and menopause itself are marked by significant hormonal changes. Fluctuations in oestrogen levels can lead to mood swings, anxiety, and depression. Menopausal women might also experience sleep disturbances and hot flushes, further impacting mental health.

Recognising the Signs

Identifying the signs of hormone-related mental health issues is crucial for timely intervention. Common signs include:

  • Persistent sadness or depression

  • Extreme mood swings

  • Anxiety and irritability

  • Fatigue and low energy

  • Difficulty concentrating

  • Changes in sleep patterns

  • Appetite changes or weight gain

  • Loss of interest in activities once enjoyed

Treatments and Management

Lifestyle Changes:

  • Diet: A balanced diet rich in fruits, vegetables, lean proteins, and whole grains can help stabilise blood sugar levels and improve mood.

  • Exercise: Regular physical activity can boost endorphin levels, improving mood and reducing anxiety.

  • Sleep: Ensuring adequate and quality sleep is essential for mental health.

Medical Treatments:

  • Hormone Replacement Therapy: Oestrogen, progesterone and testosterone replacement therapy can help alleviate menopausal symptoms and improve mood.

  • Antidepressants: Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) are commonly prescribed for PMDD and PND to manage depression and anxiety.

  • Cognitive Behavioural Therapy (CBT): This form of therapy can help women develop coping strategies for managing mood swings and depression.

Alternative Treatments:

  • Herbal Supplements: Some women find relief from symptoms through herbal supplements like black cohosh, chasteberry, and evening primrose oil. However, it’s essential to consult a healthcare provider before starting any supplement.

  • Mindfulness and Relaxation Techniques: Practices such as yoga, meditation, and deep-breathing exercises can reduce stress and improve mental well-being.


The impact of female hormones on mental health is profound and multifaceted. Understanding the connection between hormonal changes and mental health conditions can empower women to seek appropriate treatment and support. By recognising the signs of hormone-related mental health issues and exploring various treatment options, women can navigate these challenges and maintain a healthy, balanced life. As research continues to evolve, a deeper understanding of these dynamics will hopefully lead to more effective treatments and support systems for women worldwide.

Meet our hormone related mental health expert: Kate Organ

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